Kosala existed as a geographical unit in ancient Odisha. The Atharvaveda’s Parisistha contains the earliest depiction of Kosala. Additionally, the Epics and Puranas shed light on its ancient history. It was named after an ancient people called Kosalas, similar to Kalinga, Utkala, and Odra. From the beginning, the kingdom of Kosala was divided into two …

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In Asoka’s inscription at Dhauli, Tosali has found mention as a city which has been identified by some scholars with modern Sisupalagarh, but Tosali or Tosala as the name of a territory also occurs in the subsequent literature and epigraphic records.


The geographical unit of Odra has found mention in different ancient texts. The Pali texts make repeated mention of Oddaka and the Greek writers refer to Oretes which can be equated with Odra, mentioned in various Sanskrit texts.


Utkala appears in the Mahabharata in association with the countries of Odras, Mekala, Kalinga,Darsana and Andhras. Tradition associates the origin of Utkala which Vaivasvata Manu who finds mention among the kings of India.


The fertile coastal plains stretching from the mouth of the river Ganges up to Godavari, with mountains and forests, gave a natural boundary to Kalinga. The name Kalinga occurs in the Puranas in association with Anga, Vanga, Pundra and Sumha.