Magadha and Kalinga

Goutam went from Kapilavastu to Devadaha (Gobindapur) and then to Keshaputta(Keshapur) and Dharmasila (Dharmasala). Then he went through the present Jajpur Road and crossed Anandapur, Keonjhargarh, Champua, Chainbasa, Kharasuan and reached Rajagriha in Magadha. While he was wandering aimlessly he had met Bimbisara, the Emperor of Magadha in Rajagriha.

The First Route of Buddha

When Bimbisara, the Emperor saw him he was astonished at this most handsome young ascetic and asked about his ancestry and whereabouts. Buddha replied calmly “There is O’King, straight from here a country at the slope of the Hemagiri, rich in wealth and heroes who dwell among the ‘Tolashas, I come from.” This reply has been described in Prabbajja Sutta and in Suttanipata, published by Pali Publication Board. Bhubaneswar was known as Hemagiri as can be seen from Kavya Chandrabhaga by Radhanath Ray and Kirtibasa Daitya Badha a portion of Sharala Mahabharata by Sharala Das, Kedar Gouri by Radhanath Ray and from the Sanskrit book Swarnadri Mahodaya.

Kapilavastu of Tosala presently called Kapileswara at Bhubaneswar is situated to the South of Rajagriha and both of them stand almost on the same meridian (Rajagiri 85°30’E, BBSR 85°45’E) and the distance between them is approximately 660 Kms. On the otherhand, the site of Tarai pillar which is now identified as Kapilavastu is situated on longitude 85°E in the North West direction of Rajagruha and the distance between the two places is 275 Kms. approximately from Rajagruha. So called Kapilavastu of Nepal and Rajagruha are not located in a straight line. Even from the standpoint of latitude whereas Rajagruha is situated on the latitude 25°N while Kapilavastu Tarai region is located on the latitude 27°30’N. So these two places cannot be taken to have been situated in a straight line. Kapilavastu (Kapileswar of Bhubaneswar) and Rajagruha are located in a straight line. a

It is described in the Nidana-Katha-Jatak Part-I, by Bhadanta Ananda Kausalyana that it took 60 days to Buddha to traverse from Rajagruha to Kapilavastu to cover a distance of 60 Yojanas (approximately 660 Kms) at a daily average of one Yojana i.e. 11 Kms. Whereas Kapilavastu of Tarai region is in a distance of 300 Kms. from Rajagruha.

Hemavantagiri referred to by Buddha was later on known as Swarnakuta Giri or Swarnadri. This was a mountainous region comprising Kapileswar and Bhubaneswar which included the forest Chaniaka which

was renamed after Chhandaka, the horse groom and • charioteer of Buddha. Khandagiri, Dhauligiri and Udayagiri hills belonged to this area near Hemavantagiri.

There is no geographical or historical account of the routes, roads and ways Buddha followed starting from his renouncement of the world till his arrival at Magadha except in Buddhist religious books. Tapussa & Bhalika :

In the Santike Nidana of the Jataka and the Mahabagga of Vinaya Pitaka, it is written that at the end of four or seven weeks two merchants Tapussa and Bhalika came travelling from Kalinga (Orissa) and being intimated by a divinity they approached Buddha, and offered him rice and honey cakes (Madhupindakam). The two persons in the whole world who for the first time accepted Buddhism were the two merchants of Kalinga namely Tapussa and Bhalika. They met Buddha in the Uruvella forest while they were going for their trade with merchandise in 500 bullock carts. At that time Buddha as described in Lalit Vistar after attaining the Enlightenment was in a starving condition in that lonely forest and still his body was looking quite fresh and handsome. Buddha’s acceptance of food from the two merchants goes to prove that they belonged to the same region and must have communicated well for gaining confidence. This is possible in case of persons belonging to the same area or region. Besides Buddha also went in their cart to the Mrugadava forest of Varanasi (Saranatha).

While these two merchants were on the way back from Hastina, Buddha came with them to Rajagruha. All these events indicated that Buddha and these two merchants belonged to one region i.e. Kalinga and understood each other pretty well.

Buddhadeva had given teaching in Palli language. It is known that the then language in Kalinga was Palli. The stone inscription of Kharavela after five centuries was written in Palli and that is the only edict carved in Palli language. The Madhupindakam with honey given by the two traders is nothing but the Arisa Pitha so popular in Orissa. The drink mowtha consisted of roasted sakhu (Jaba churna i.e. barley with ghee, juice of pomegranet (Dalimba in Oriya) and sweet (sugar, molasses, etc.), stirred together with cold water and strained, neither so thick nor so watery which gives strength readily and removes thirst and fatigue.

Ashok had constructed a pillar in Kapilavastu where Buddha’s birth rites were performed. But the forest area where Buddha was really born later on became famous as Bhubaneswar. Bhubaneswara is actually one of the names of the Buddha. Bhubaneswar has now become the capital of Orissa. It is really surprising that after 2600 years even now one can notice the name of Kothadesha for Koladesha, Lembai for Lumbini, Kapileswara for Kapilavastu and many more names. Buddha after his renoucement had accompanied by Chhandaka, the horsegroom. So the Sakya king Suddhodan named a

village near Kapilavastu as Chhandaka which has now in various Jataka and Tripitakka and Haridravansam a become Chandaka, where a dense forest even now exists. The present Vani Vihar (Utkal Unieversity) area was part of the Chandaka forest. Till 1817 in all Government records, there are clear references to the Lembai, Kothadesha, Koladesha, Sailo, Anardha, Dandimala, Tapanga, Deogaon, Kadanda, Kodinda, Kapileswara, Satyabadi, Delanga, Pipili, etc. These names can be seen .

Nepal does not have any such habitation.